The switched mode power supply are sources that control the voltage in a load by opening and closing a switch circuit in order to maintain the desired voltage for the opening and closing time of this circuit. This configuration is common in modern appliances due the advantages that they present.
Symmetric sources are widely used to power circuits which use operational amplifiers, voltage comparators, and A/D converters that operate in conjunction with microcontrollers. These sources generate a negative and a positive voltage, of equal values ??regarding a reference (ground or 12 V). In this article, based on our book "Power Supplies" (only in portuguese now), we describe some symmetrical sources of great utility for designers.
PLL or Phase Locked Loop is the name of one of the most important of all circuits we currently find in electronic applications of all kinds. The PLL stands for frequency as the operational amplifier stands for voltage. Any electronic professional working with communication circuits, digital instrumentation, DSPs, microcontrollers and microprocessors or even analogue signal circuits, need to know the PLL principle of operation. In this article, we will simply analyze the operation of this important basic electronic circuit.
Springs are elastic devices that can be twisted, stretched or pulled by external forces. They can return to their original shape when the external force is released.
Figure 1 shows some types of springs.
How to connect LEDs, which are low voltage devices, to the power grid of 110 V, 117 V or 220 V? No, it is not necessary to build a power source with or without a transformer and other expensive components. The simple solution to this problem is shown in this article, and it can be used in signage, advertisement boards, decoration and much more.
One of the main factors that causes the destruction of electronic components is the lack of care with the dissipation of the heat generated by them. The phenomenon of thermal drift which accelerates the destruction of components, when everything seems to be perfect, from a small overload or imbalance of the operation that initiates a cumulative process, can compromise many projects, especially those of high power. How it occurs and how to avoid the problems of the thermal drift is the subject that we will address in this article.
CMOS 4001 Crystal Oscillator (CB888E)
Frequencies up to 5 MHz can be poroduced by this circuit. The output is a square wave signal. The...
Bridge Capacimeter (CB887E)
This circuit consists in a capacitor bridge for capacitance measurements. The circuit can be...
Light Cut Alarm (CB886E)
Passing between a light source and the sensor will trigger on the relay by a time interval...
Reed Switch Alarm (CB885E)
Many reed switches can be wired in series to perform na efficient alarm as shoen in the figure....
4093 Oscillator (MSB0125E)
This oscillator can run in frequencies up 10 MHz depending on the Power supply voltage. The 1 µF...
Decade Counter (MSB124E)
This one-digit counter is part f the samples bench of the MultiSIM in one of its versions. The...
Simple Timer Using the 555 (MSB123E)
This simple timer can be used in many applications such as egg timer. The LED glows up when S1 is...
Ultrasound Emitter (MSB122E)
The circuit shown by the figure below can produce signals in the range between 20 kHz and 30 kHz....